Research presented at this year’s European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Lisbon, Portugal suggested that artificial sweeteners may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by changing the body’s response to glucose.
Twenty-seven healthy individuals were given a placebo or two noncaloric artificial sweeteners, sucralose and acesulfame-K, in an amount equivalent to drinking four 12-ounce cans of a diet beverage. After two weeks, the participants were tested for rates of glucose (sugar) absorption, insulin levels, and gut hormones levels that control food intake.
This small study determined that it took two weeks of consuming an equivalent of four cans of diet beverage to increase the rate sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream and increase the body’s response to sugar. The participants had an increase in blood sugar, as opposed to a decrease in blood sugar as would be expected with the consumption of a beverage containing no sugar.
Despite the growing evidence that nonnutritive sweeteners may not be healthy substitutes for sugar-sweetened beverages, popular health websites, such as the Mayo Clinic, suggest that individuals with diabetes use nonnutritive sweeteners. Sweeteners in their list include saccharin (Sweet'N Low), aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal), acesulfame potassium (Sunett), sucralose, (Splenda) and stevia (Pure Via, Truvia).
The author of the Mayo Clinic page on nonnutritive sweeteners mentions that recent studies have cast doubt on recommending these sweeteners, and the benefits of making these substitutions are not clear.
* Pepsi no longer uses sucralose in their diet soda.
Poor sleeping habits are associated with an increased risk of weight gain and obesity. Short sleepers (< 7 hours/night) and long sleepers (> 9 hours/night) are more likely to be obese. Other sleep characteristics associated with obesity include daytime napping, working night shifts, poor sleep quality and evening chronotype (being a “night person”). Individuals who tend to stay up late at night, and sleep during the morning hours, are more likely to have poor eating habits, engage in late-night snacking, have sleep apnea and higher levels of stress hormones. Night owls are also more likely to develop diabetes and metabolic conditions.
A study in the April 2017 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition evaluated sleep patterns in those with a genetic risk for obesity. Among individuals at risk for obesity, short sleepers and long sleepers had a greater body mass than normal sleepers, those who sleep between seven and nine hours per night. Sleep duration was not significantly associated with body weight in individuals with a low genetic risk for obesity. Sleep behaviors are more likely to affect individuals who are at risk for obesity based on their genes.
This study sheds light on the interactions between our genes and our lifestyle. Sleeping behaviors influence our genes, and those at risk of obesity may be able to moderate weight gain by changing their sleeping habits.
You stopped snacking after dinner, eliminated mindless munching, and have been avoiding the white stuff, but the pounds just won't come off. Despite putting your best effort into your new diet, you can't seem to lose any weight! You are not alone, many people have the same frustrating experience with dieting, and scientists are searching for explanations.
A new study from researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine evaluated the impact of dieting on two groups of mice. One group of mice was accustomed to the Standard American Diet (aka SAD diet), while the other group was accustomed to a low-calorie plant-based diet. We’ll call this group VEGGIE mice. When fed the same restricted diet, the SAD mice lost less weight compared with the VEGGIE mice. Both groups of mice went on the same diet, but the mice used to eating a low-calorie plant-based diet lost more weight.
Many of us can relate to these diet-challenged SAD mice. Despite multiple attempts at dieting, passing on warm french bread and mac n’ cheese, we cannot seem to drop those extra pounds. Two weeks without any weight loss? Forget it! Where’s the Ben & Jerry’sⓇ?
The standard American diet is high in refined carbohydrates, simple sugars, saturated fat and low in whole fruits and vegetables. Those of us who have spent our lifetime eating a SAD diet have fewer types of bacteria in our guts. In scientific terms, our microbiota lacks diversity. This lack of bacterial diversity lowers our response to positive dietary changes. Our gut bacteria prevent us from losing weight. Blame the bacteria!
In their study, researchers noted that the SAD mice had fewer types of bacteria in their gut. They decided to see if cohousing SAD mice and VEGGIE mice would impact the response to the diet. They found that when the diversity-challenged SAD mice mingled with their VEGGIE-mice friends, their gut bacterial colonies became more diverse. Incredibly, after mingling with the VEGGIE mice, the SAD mice started to respond to the restricted diet. The bacteria from one group of mice ended up in the other group of mice, increasing the diversity of the bacteria in the SAD mice, resulting in weight loss.
A shared space led to a greater variety of gut bugs, which led to more weight loss
Does this mean we should make more vegan friends and put away our antimicrobial sanitizer to lose weight? Possibly. But, despite our continuous shedding of bacteria, the rate at which we exchange bacteria, and the effect this has on weight loss and health is not yet clear.
What we can take away from this research is that poor food choices over the long term will negatively influence the bacteria in our gut, limiting responses to positive short-term dietary changes. If you've been eating packaged food and fast food for decades, you may not see an immediate response to a new diet. But this doesn't mean you shouldn't try! We should still make improvements to our diet, making efforts to eliminate processed foods and refined carbohydrates and adding more whole fruits and vegetables to our daily menu. But, perhaps we should abandon "dieting". Instead of multiple short-term diet attempts, a better approach may be to make a few positive dietary changes that will last a lifetime.
Creating a healthy dietary pattern will result in greater gut bacterial diversity. This diversity gives us a better chance of losing weight and will lead to long-term health benefits.
In a study published in JAMA Pediatrics, investigators found an association between the consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy and infant weight (1). The study evaluated artificially sweetened and sugar sweetened beverage consumption in 3,033 healthy, pregnant women. The weight of the infant, as measured by body mass index (BMI), was evaluated at one year of age. Almost 30% of the women consumed artificially sweetened drinks at some point during their pregnancy.
Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of the infant being overweight by one year of age. The investigators considered factors such as the weight of the mother, the quality of her diet, the number of calories consumed and common obesity risk factors.
Although this is the first study to assess the impact of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy and their effect on infant weight, the concept is not new. There is a growing body of evidence to support the link between artificially sweetened drinks, weight gain and even diabetes. What is really interesting about this study is that there was no association between increased infant weight and sugar sweetened drinks. This is surprising because there is a clear link between the consumption of added sugar and weight gain (2).
Despite this new research, a causal relationship has not been established. There is not enough evidence to prove that diet sodas consumed during pregnancy cause weight gain in infants. The authors concluded that further research is warranted to confirm their findings. For expecting mothers, caution should be exercised and it might be wise to avoid artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy.
Christine Dobrowolski is a nutritionist and whole-foods advocate.